Textile glossary








Abrash: Varying shades of a color caused or produced by a lack of uniformity in the dyeing of the fibers.

Achaemenids: A dynasty in pre-Islamic Persia, 560-330 B.C.

Alum: (aluminum sulphate and potassium) material used as a fixative and mordant agent in the dyeing of fibers.

Arabesque: Decorative motif consisting of abstract and open stylized floral designs which can be repeated ad infinitum. Repetitive interlaced and intricate pattern derived from Arab designs based on plant and stem motifs.

Arab-Spanish knot: Used in Spanish and some Coptic carpets.

Azo Dye: A synthetic dye, Classified as acid direct, introduced from 1875 to 1890. Usually yellow, orange, red or violet red. Tends to run easily.

Asymmetrical Knot: Also known as the Persian knot or Senneh knot. The yarn only encircles one warp of the pair and is described as being open to the left or to the right.

Aniline Dye: A basic direct dye made from coaltar derivatives, first used in carpets around 1860 and prevalent in the Middle East by 1880. Pink, violet, blue, and green were among the first colours in widespread use. The dyes are fugitive and fade to unattractive shades. They were banned by the Persian Government from 1903, although they continued to be used in other countries.

Beam: (Of a loom) the wooden bar around which the warp and the finished part of the carpet are wound.

Brocade: A specific type of fabric; in carpets this term refers to gold and silver threads, forming rings, which are woven into the warp’ and weft.

Boteh: A design motif, leaf-shaped with a crest or curving top, or shaped rather like a pine-cone or pear. Developed in the seventeenth century out of Persian and Indian flowering plant motifs; later used in a more angular form in Persian, Caucasian, and sometimes Turkish carpets. Recognisable in its most fluid form as the Paisley pattern.

Caravanserai: Places where, originally, camel caravans stopped to rest­ and buy supplies; later they became trading centers and in many cases thriving towns.

Carding: Process of combing wool either manually or mechanically.

Chevron: decorative motif formed by a series of concentric ‘V’s.

Chi-chi: Chinese decorative motif of floating ribbons.

Chi-lin: imaginary or legendary unicornlike quadruped, typical of the Chinese decorative repertoire.

Ch’ing: the last Chinese dynasty, 1644-1912.

Column (carpet): A term used to describe Anatolian carpets with a se­ries of columns supporting the mihrab (cf.) or niche.

Copt: A term describing Christians in Egypt and Ethiopia.

Cochineal: Red dye obtained from the crushed and pulverised bodies of insects.

Cloud Band: One of many variations of Chinese origin based on the shape of clouds. In some versions it resembles a ram’s horn.

Chrome Dye: Improved azo dyes, fast and mordanted, introduced in this century. The uniform dying of the wool may result in a dead appearance compared with natural dyes.

Damascene, Damascus (carpet): Term used in Venice in the 15th and 16th centuries to describe specific technical and decorative fea­tures of rugs and carpets.

Dragon: A legendary creature depicted in Oriental carpets on the basis of the Chinese decorative scheme, consisting of twelve parts from twelve animals depicted in differing styles.

Depressed Warp: Technique of weaving when alternate warps or groups of warps lie on different levels, increasing the thickness and giving the back a ribbed texture.

Fabric: (or textile) something that is woven, either manually or mechani­cally.

Farsh: Carpet in modern Persian (Iranian).

Flaming pearl: Chinese symbol associated with dragons and with the fertility cult.

Garden (carpet)
: A carpet decorated with the design of a typical Persian garden.

Gul: Meaning “flower” in Persian; this is the emblem and decorative motif peculiar to each Turkmen tribe.

Hegira/hejira: Literally the beginning of the Islamic calendar – the date that Hz. Mohammed fled Mecca to Medina. Corresponds to the year 622 A.D. in the Christian calendar.

Herati: Named after the town of Herat, a floral motif used mainly in carpets woven in this region. Now in Afghanistan, where the design is supposed to have originated. The Herati pattern consists of a lozenge of stems terminating in flower heads surrounding a central rosette, with four lanceolate leaves curving symmetrically between the flower heads. Found in many variations – angular, geometric, naturalistic, and formalised in carpets from almost every area.

Holbein (carpet): Named after the painter Hans Holbein the Younger, who often depicted this particular type of carpet.

Horror vacui: The custom of filling every part of a rug or carpet with dense decoration.

: An Islamic Mongol dynasty from 1256-1353.

Islam: from the Arabic meaning “abandonment, submission” and re­ferred by Muhammad to the will of God; the term embraces all the rules contained in the Koran which form the basis of Moslem civili­zation and culture.

Jufti: (also double knot or false knot) a knot made on four or more warp chains rather than on the customary two chains.

Kerm: in Persian, “(silk) worm” and also “red,” whence the English words “carmine” and “crimson.”

Kermes: An insect from a fine red dye was made. Widely used by European tapestry weavers in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Kilim: A Turkish term used throughout the Orient to describe a flat rug or carpet without knots, made by hand, and double-sided.

Kis ( Kiz): The so-called Kis-Ghiordes rugs and carpets were those woven by young Turkish women for their own use.

Koran: The Moslem holy book, dictated by God (Allah) to the prophet Muhammad via the Archangel Gabriel.

Kufic: A type of geometric script originating .from the Mesopotamian city of Kufa.

Knot Count: The number of knots per square decimetre or inch, which determines the density or gauge of a carpet. as a rough guide the following table may be useful; Very coarse up to 500 per square decimetre (33 per square inch) Coarse 500-1000 per square decimetre (33-66 per square inch) Medium 900-1800 per square decimetre (60-120 per square inch) Fine 1800-2500 per square decimetre (120-166 per square inch) Very fine 2500-4500 per square decimetre (166-300 per square inch) Fine silk carpets have a knot count 15,000 or more per decimetre squared (1,000 per square inch).

: (or mosque lamp) a decorative motif used in prayer rugs to indi­cate the direction of the rug, or for purely ornamental purposes.

Loom: A structure with various interconnecting parts on which carpets and rugs are woven.

Lotto (carpet): After the name of the painter Lorenzo Lotto, a definition used as a rule in the same way as “Holbein carpet.”

Lac: A deep crimson-red dye obtained from the extract of the female Tachardia lacca, an insect indigenous to India.

Maghreb: Name given to the countries of North Africa, with the exception of Egypt.

Mameluks: Sovereign dynasty in Egypt and Syria, 1250-1517.

Manufacture Nationale des Gobelins: From 1825 onward the factory where French rugs and carpets were produced.

Maqsud Kashani: Supervisor of the famous Ardabil carpet.

Mausoleum: A large monumental tomb.

Mihrab: The niche in the wall of the mosque that is directed toward Mecca and indicates the direction of prayer.

Minbar: A sort of pulpit for the prayer leader.

Ming: Chinese dynasty from 1368-1644.

Miniaturist: (or illuminator) the artist who provides illustrations of partic­ular episodes contained in manuscripts.

Moghul: Islamic Indian dynasty, 1526-1858.

Mohair: From the Arabic-Persian mohayyar meaning “choice,” referring to high-quality wool from goats.

Mongols: A semi-nomadic tribe in Central Asia.

Moon tree: A very ancient astral symbol.

Moorish (Moresque): The style in both Arab art and civilization in North Africa, Sicily, and in particular, Spain.

Mosque: The Moslem equivalent of a church.

Mudejar: A term used in Spain for Moslems who were subjects of a Christian sovereign.

Muslim: (or Moslem) pertaining to or belonging to Islam, from the Ara­bic-Persian word muslim, meaning “belonging to Islam.”

Ottomans: Turkish dynasty, 1281-1924.

Palmette: A floral form which probably takes its name from the palm frond which it resembled in Assyrian times. It may resemble a sliced artichoke, a vine leaf, or a stiffly drawn lotus blossom.

Patchwork: A type of carpet originating from the Valtellina region, con­sisting of various “patches” sewn together.

Phoenix: A mythical bird, sacred in various mythologies; in rugs and carpets it is generally depicted as a composite creature, taken from the Chinese decorative repertoire.

Pile: The upper surface of a carpet, consisting of the knots.

Polonaise or Polish (carpet): Persian carpets from Isfahan or Kashan, many of which were discovered in Poland; in 1878 the collection belonging to Prince Czartoryski was exhibited in Paris.

Prayer rug: A small rug used for prayer, generally decorated with the mihrab motif, lamp, or other appropriate design.

Pseudo-inscription: An imitation of an inscription with similar or partly accurate symbols and actual letters of the alphabet, but without any meaning and used for purely decorative purposes.

Pseudo-Kufic: An imitation of the Kufic acript used for decorative pur­poses.

Qashqai: A semi-nomadic tribe of Turkish origin settled in southern Per­sia.

Qibla: The direction of Mecca or, more precisely, of the ka’ba, which is the box in the main mosque in Mecca where the black stone is kept.

Rococo (style): A term derived from French rocaille, which refers to an 18th-century artistic and stylistic movement with a focus on rich and luxurious decoration.

Safawid: Islamic-Persian dynasty, 1501-1732.

Sassanid: Pre-Islamic Persian dynasty, 224-651.

Scroll: A fairly elaborate elongated ovoid form, named after a roll of paper with inscriptions.

Scythians: A group of Asiatic tribes living in the steppes of Scythia (southern European Russia).

Sehna: A city in Kurdistan (now called Sanandaj) after which the knot (farsi baff) mainly used by Persian weavers is named.

Seljuks: A dynasty of Central Asian origin, 1038 – 1194 in Persia, 1077 – 1307 in Anatolia

Shaman: A priest of Central Asian tribes capable of entering a state of ecstasy by means of mystical practices, and of being in contact with the spirits.

Shah Abbas: ( 1587 – 1629 ) The most famous Persian monarch.

Shah Abbasi: Design of large palmettes and floral scrolling vines.

Silk Route: overland trade route from China to the Near East, known above all for its most valuable and sought-after commodity: silk.

Sultan Muhammad: A famous illuminator from the Safawid period.

Sumak: A flat carpet made with threads which “hook” several warp chains, and are cut on the underside of the carpet.

Sung: Chinese dynasty, 960-1279.

Sun-tree: Very ancient astral symbol.

: An ancient sun symbol consisting of a cross with four equal arms, bent at right angles either to the left or the right.

: A Persian word denoting the coat of dead animals.

Taj Mahal: A famous Islamic mausoleum at Agra in India.

T`ang: Chinese dynasty, 618-907.

Taoist: From the Chinese word tao, “way”; the name of an ancient Chinese philosophy.

Timurids: A dynasty of central Asian origin, 1370-1506.

Transval (carpet)
: Anatolian carpets found in large numbers in churches in Transylvania.

Tree of life: Very old Oriental symbol of fertility and prosperity.

Turkmen or Turkoman: Semi-nomadic people of central Asia divided into various tribes.

Vase, carpet with
: A term denoting a type of. Persian carpet made with a given technique, but not necessarily decorated with vases.

Vishap: A mythical aquatic monster in Armenian mythology.

: The vertical threads of a carpet. The warp is strung on the empty loom and provides the framework for weaving.

Weft: The Horizontal continuous thread woven into the warp. One or more shoots of weft thread usually separates the rows of knots which are tied to the warp.

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 Ail, ayil: Kyrgyz community (camp or village).

Alacha: Fabric

Ashkana chij: Decorated sedge screen to separate off the kitchen area of the yurt.

Beyz: Raw cotton hand-woven fabric.

Börü: Wolf.

Boz üy: Kyrgyz yurt.

Bugu: Deer.

Bulga’ary: Leather clothing, made from Russian leather.

Bürküt: Eagle.

Chyglyi teri: Raw-hide, untanned leather.

Dikek: Ornamental horse cloth from felt. Also oromo.

Djapalak: Owl.

Enchi: Bride’s marriage gift of cattle, part of dowry which comes to daughter from her parents after one year.

Ikat: Uzbek woven silk cloth with tie-dyed warp thread.

IstanbouI: Closely woven white cloth used for women’s turban.

Iyik: Spindle.

Jailo’o: Summer pastures.

Jamby-atmay: Archery.

Jigits: Young men.

Jylky: Horse.

Kalym: Bride price.

Karlygatch: Swallow.

Kayik: Stitch.

Kiyit tartu’u: An exchange of gifts, sometimes at betrothal.

Koy: Sheep.

Kuchak: Measurement: spread of the arm.

Küdöpü: Very soft buckskin or suede.

Kurech: Form of wrestling which involves grappling with the opponent’s belt.

Ku`umüsh: Silver.

Kymiss: Fermented mares’ milk.

Kyshto’o: Winter pastures.

Kyska: Short.

Kyz ku’umay: Game “catch the girl and kiss her” , played on horseback.

Manap: Traditional leader.

Markhan: Coral.

Mata: Hand-woven cotton sewn together in bands.

No’otu: A woollen cloth.

Odarych: Horseback wrestling.

Payga: Horse races.

Piazy: Brown hand-woven camel’s wool cloth.

Sayma: Embroidery.

Sedep: Mother of pearl.

Shumkar: Falcon.

Su’ur: Marmot.

Ta’ar: Canvas.

Teri: Leather.

Terme: Woollen band, woven on a ground loom.

Ters kayyk: A type of pattern for embroidery (reverse stitch).

Tö’ö: Camel.

Topoz: Yak.

Toy: Big festival or celebration such as a wedding.

Tush kiyiz: Embroidered screen inside yurt.

Uy: Cow.

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Achyk köynök: Northern man’s shirt, open to the waist, often trimmed with turned down collar, and fastened by a lace.

Ak djo’oluk: A white head scarf worn by a married woman.

Ak kalpak: A kalpak without a split brim.

Arkalyk: Metal plaque or plate used as a decoration for a woman’s plaits.

Bach beldemchi: Wide waistband of beldemchi.

Bacma chapa: A chapan from printed fabric.

Baypa: Socks, felt leggings.

Bedene kemer: A chrome belt.

Bedene ötük: Chrome boots.

Bel kur: Fabric belt around the waist.

Belbo`o: Waist sash.

Beldemchi: Woman’s apron skirt.

Beshmant: Lined, waisted or fitted overcoat, with a stand-up collar or open neck(not quilted).

Beykasam: A half-silk (and usually half­cotton) shiny fabric with fine stripes. Or a light coat made from beykasam.

Bilerik: A bracelet.

Bo’o: A band, cord, lace.

Boto kur: A wide silk sash or scarf tied around the waist.

Boy tumar: Large amulet.

Buchkak ichik: A fur coat made from the fur of animals’ feet or paws.

Büchülük: Tie at the neck of a tunic dress or shirt. Also big circular metal button. Büyürmö ton: Pleated overcoat.

Büyürmö köynök: Pleats or gathers (as in a pleated dress).

Büyürmö topu: A pleated skullcap made from white cloth, unlined (worn under a warm head covering).

Chach kap: Embroidered plait holder (lit. hair bag), long and narrow, made from black velvet and decorated with tassels, silver, mother-of-pearl or pom-poms.

Chach kep: Small embroidered bonnet which women wear under the ileki (southern Kyrgyzstan).

Chach monchok: Hair ornament, hanging from a woman’s plait holder (glass beads, pendants or keys may be hung-they jangle when women walk).

Chach pak: Woollen tassel incorporated into a plait (as a hair decoration).

Chach papik: Plait decoration of Uzbek and / or Tadjik origin, consisting of pom-poms of hair bound with black silk and extended by silver conical ornaments.

Chach üchtük: Plait decoration. Rows of silver pieces interspersed with coral beads. Usually in threes.

Chachvan: Uzbek horsehair veil.

Chalbar: Leather trousers decorated around the bottoms with embroidery.

Chalgai: A light quilted overcoat, worn all over Central, Asia. Long, with long sleeves which cover the hands.

Charkchi, oromoI: Silk or cotton sash from southern Kyrgyzstan, used as a belt. Charyk, paycheki: Shoes made from uncured hide with a thick sole and low uppers.

Chepken, chekmen: Man’s quilted overcoat.

 Chi`idan: Shepherd`s overcoat made from hand-woven woolen cloth, lined with felt, sometimes made from camel hair.

Chokoy: A coarse shoe.

Cholpu: Silver hair ornaments, hung from a woman’s plait(s).

Chyptama: Short-style waistcoat.

Da’aki: An overcoat made from foal’s skin with the hair on the outside.

Dambal: Trousers, pantaloons or long-johns.

Djagtak: Man`s loose undershirt ,similar to djegde, worn in southern Kyrgyzstan and still worn by Uzbeks and Tajiks.

Djaka: A collar.

Djakalu’u ton: A rich man’s fur coat with a big fur collar.

Djargak shym: Leather trousers.

Djegde: A long blouse worn by older men (without a collar and slit to the navel). Worn in the south and around Talas.

Djekene: Old name for leather belt, mentioned in Manas epic.

Djelburö’öch: Chains.

Djelek: Traditional lightweight, unlined summer coat.

Djez okcho: Metal (usually copper) plate used to reinforce boot heel.

Djigach kepich: Wooden clogs with high­nailed heels, worn in south-west Kyrgyzstan and in the Alai mountains.

Djiladjin: Small bells attached to the feet of hunting birds. Also put in the heel of boots so they tinkle when the wearer walks.

Djo’oluk: A woman’s scarf.

Dürüyö: Silk headscarf for women.

Dürüyö keshte: Embroidered silk band or scarf.

Elechek: A white married woman’s turban worn in northern Kyrgyzstan (variants known as ileki, kalak ).

Eshme: A decoration made from black wool, attached to a woman’s plait to lengthen it. Traditional hair extension.

Etek: Skirt part of beldemchi.

Galoshe: Rubber overshoes put on over inner light leather boots (ma ‘asy).

Goul-e keshte: Flower – embroidered silk band or scarf.

Gudmuk: Plait decorations made of coins held together with little straps of leather.

lch köynök: Underclothes.

lch shym: Under-trousers, made from white cotton.

Ichik: A fur coat, covered on the outside with fabric.

Ichtan: Wide women’s (and men’s) under-trousers.

IIeki: A form of elechek. A woman’s  white turban worn in southern Kyrgyzstan. The neck and chin are uncovered.

Iymek: Earrings.

Kalak: Scarf hung over ileki or elechek, embroidered with multicoloured flowers and bordered by a funge of red silk.

Kalpak: White felt hat.

Kandagai shym: Men’s wide trousers or britches, made from the skin of the wild mountain goat. The old Kyrgyz called trousers made from elk skin or chamois leather kandagai. They are referred to in the Manas epic.

Kap takiya: A white skullcap or small bonnet worn by women under the elechek in the northern regions (also bash kap, lit. head bag).

Kaptama chapan: A covered  chapan.

Kayyima djaka: A turned-down collar.

Kaptama ton: Covered sheepskin coat.

Kara körpö tebetey: Black Astrakhan hat.

Kayyima djaka: A turned-down collar.

Kebenek, kementai: Shepherd’s large felt coat.

Kelteche, chyptama: Waistcoat.

Kemantai: An outer garment (overcoat) made from felt in natural wool colours.

Keme: A belt (sometimes with metal decorations).

Kemsel, kemsal: A man’s short-sleeved jacket (down to the elbows). Also kemzir or kamzur.

Kepich: Leather  overshoes put on over ma ‘asy, the light leather boot. Worn before rubber galoshes were introduced.

Keshenye: Sash.

Keshte: Embroidery, embroidered patterns.

Ki’iz chokoy: Felt boot or velinky.

Kimechek: Eighteenth-century Kyrgyz and Kazakh hood for the ceremonial journey the bride makes on horseback on her wedding day.

Körpö: Astrakhan lambskin. See also kara körpö tebetey.

Körpö tebetey: Astrakan tebetey.

Kour: Belt.

Köynök: A woman’s dress or blouse.

Kiöynök kosh etek: A dress with a gathered or pleated skirt.

Koz monchok: A protection against the evil eve.

Kulun ton: A pelisse made from foal’s skin.

Kunduz tebetey: Otter tebetey.

Kunu: Foal skin.

Kupu: A fur coat made from the fur of a young camel.

Kushak: Large cloth belt.

Kyrgak: A band of good cloth, usually silk, which encircles the elechek (turban). Among rich families, it may be made from linked silver plaques, from which hang silver and coral pendants. Also known as tartma, diiriiyo keshte or goul-e keshte.

Kyska ton, cholok ton : A short, sheepskin coat.

Ma’asy or ichigi: Men’s or women’s boots, with no heels and soft soles, to fit inside galoshes for outside wear.

Malakay: Man’s fur hat, without brim but with ear flaps.

Monchok: Beads.

Ma’asy or ichigi: Men’s or women’s boots, with no heels and soft soles, to fit inside galoshes for outside wear.

Malakay: Man’s fur hat, without brim but with ear flaps.

Monchok: Beads.

Orus chokoy: Russian felt boot, also called valenky.

Orus ton: Russian overcoat.

Ötük: Boot.

Piazy: Brown hand-woven camel’s wool cloth.

Piazy chepken: Overcoat made from piazy.

Piazy shym: Winter trousers woven from piazy.

Postune: Sheepskin fur coat worn in Kyrgyzstan.

Sagak: Coral beads (hung from ear flaps).

Sagak söyköy: The above linked together by a silver chain which passes under the chin.

Sallya: Man’s turban.

Sayma shym: Embroidered trousers.

Sayma topu: Embroidered skullcap.

Selde: A man’s turban.

Shakek: Ring.

Shökülü: A very old-style headwear for young women. From the second half of the nineteenth century, it became a ceremonial wedding headdress. Conical in form.

Shuru: Coral, a coral necklace.

Shym: Trousers.

Silsila: Woman’s frontal jewellery.

SöIköbay: Button, woman’s clothing decoration, made from coins known as solkobay or tselkovyy (one rouble, from Russian compound word “tselkovyi rouble”).

Söyköy: Big conical earrings.

Siöyköy djeburöch: Conical shaped earrings, attached to the ears and linked by chains of coral and silver beads hanging across the neck and breast.

Takiya: A young girl’s skullcap (usually decorated with plumes from the eagle owl or owl).

Tartma: Cloth band used to secure a woman’s turban.

Tay tuyak: Horses hooves fixed to shoes for mountain climbing.

Tebetey: Well-to-do man’s hat, with fur trimming. A version  is also worn by young girls. The trimming may be fox, otter and so on. See also tülkü tebetey, kyndyz tebetey, etc. Teke shym: Goatskin trousers.

Telpek: A simple man’s hat, unlined, with a fur border (3-5 centimetres wide).

Tepme: Thick felt made from lamb’s wool.

Tepme chepke: A felt overcoat, popular among shepherds.

Terme kushak: Large cloth belt.

Tik djaka: A stand-up collar.

Ton: A sheepskin coat or pelisse, where the fur is on the inside, but not covered on the outside with fabric (sometimes made from  the fur of other animals).

Töönöruch: An English safety pin or button.

Topchu: Button.

Topu: Skullcap (sometimes decorated on the outside with embroidery or mother-of-pearl).

Tukaba, dukaba: Plush.

Tukaba chapan:Chapan made from plush.

Tülkü tebetey: Fox tebetey.

Tumak: A Pamir Kyrgyz round hat with earflaps made from sheepskin.Type of malakay.

Tumar: Amulet or talisman. Usually  a prayer or entreaty written on paper sewn into a cloth triangle. Sewn onto or  attached to clothes.

Tu’ura chapan:Chapan with straight flaps.

Tu’ura djaka köynök: Dress with a horizontally cut neckline (from one shoulder to the other).

Uzun jaka köynök: Dress with a horizontally and vertically cut neckline.

Ychkyr: Ribbon, braid, lace or plait.

Zirye: Linked chain of silver roubles or money used as a plait extension. Name for earrings in southern Kyrgyzstan.

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Included here are significant Uzbek and Persian terms used in this glossary. Definitions have been limited to the simplest meaning of each term, and transliterated spellings are those most often used in recent literature on Central Asian textiles.

Adras: Silk warp-faced, cotton-weft ikat.

Ainak push: Term widely used in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan for small, rectangular and square embroideries on cloth; also called mirror bags.

Alacha: Handwoven, striped cotton fabric.

Angish: Thimble

Apran: Felt floor covering.

At torba ilgich: Square ilgich without a triangular flap.

Atlas: Silk satin ikat fabric.

Baghmal: Velvet.

Basma: Style of continuous-thread couching embroidery stitch; also called suzani stitch.

Basmachi: Derogatory name applied to anti­ – Soviet resistance movement of the early Soviet period.

Beg: Chief or ruler;an honorifc.

Bekasab: Narrow-striped silk.

Beshik: Cradle.

Bigiz: Hooked iron embroidery tool with a wooden handle; used for making chain stitch; also called daraush.

Bogich: Wide woolen tent band.

Boibosh: Headress of kerchiefs wrapped around a kiigich; worn by Kungrat women.

Bokche: Turkoman bread bag.

Bosaga: Hinged wooden door of the yurt; also called erganak.

Bosh: Turbanlike head covering consisting of a small cap surrounded by many tightly wrapped scarves; sometimes also called sallabosh.

Bugzhoma: Large, envelope-shaped bag, made of embroidered cloth or plain-woven wool fabric, used to store clothing; also, triangular or V-shaped embroidered cloth decorations for the chuk (called segusha in Afghanistan).

Buranboi: Lightly starched, handmade gauze used by embroiderers as backing cloth.

Buz: Handwoven, tabby unbleached cotton cloth; also called karbaz.

Caroq: Technique of piecing fabric or felt to make patchwork; Uzbek patchwork cloth.

Chachak: Silk fringe.

Chai khalta: Bag for carrying tea and other small personal items.

Chaishab: Medium-to-Iarge-sized hanging.

Chamak: Cretan stitch.

Chambarak: Embroidery frame.

Changarok: Large, spoked wheel atop the yurt that holds the wooden poles forming the dome.

Char-chiroq: Four-wicked lamp.

Charh: Spinning wheel.

Charigich: Yurt door made of a piece of felt tied to the frame with a woolen rope.

Chekmen: Robe made of wool or coarse, home­made cloth.

Chii: Reed mats used on the side of a yurt.

Chillia: First forty days following the birth of a child.

Chimildik: Wedding curtain.

Chinda-khayo: Double-darning stitch.

Chiraz: Trim.

Chizmakash: Wornan skilled at drawing embroi­dery designs; also called kalamkash.

Chuk: Elaborately constructed stack of bedding, hangings, quilts, and blankets.

Cinchi: Horse expert.

Da-our: Embroidered saddle cover.

Daraush: Hooked iron embroidery tool with a wooden handle, used for making chain stitch; also called bigiz.

Dastarkhan: Special cloth on which food is served.

Djigit: Warrior or soldier.

Doga: Triangular cloth amulet; also called tumar.

Dorpech: Narrow embroidered strip, sometimes long enough to circumscribe a room at ceiling height; also called zardevor.

Durmen: Uzbek tribal name; part of Dasht-i­Kipchak group.

Gajari gilam: Flat-woven rug with supplementary warp-float patterning.

Gardich: Embroidery hoop.

Gazhery: Technique of supplementary warp-float patterning.

Gulibadam: Almond flower.

Halamat: Beadwork necklace; also called hofomot.

Ilgich: Small square and shield-shaped decorative embroideries.

Igna nina: Embroidery needle; also nina.

Ilmoq yaktarafa: Slanted buttonhole stitch.

Iroki: FuII cross-stitch.

Ishkor: Potash.

Isparyak: Delphinium.

Iurma: Chain stitch.

Jainamaz: Name for the design of arch-shaped suzani; literally, prayer place.

Jelak: Long-sleeved, unlined over-robe; also called kurta.

Jinn: Evil spirit.

Kaichidon: Long, narrow, pentagonal containers used as scissor bags.

Kalamkash: Woman skilled at drawing embroidery designs; also called chizmakash.

Kalib: Wooden stamp for block printing; also called kolyb.

Kanaous: All-silk, plain-woven ikat fabric.

Kanda-khayo: A type of continuous-tread couching embroidery stitch popular in the Shahrisabs region.

Kara oy: Black yurt.

Karbaz: Handwoven, tabby undyed cotton fabric; also called buz.

Karluk: Uzbek tribal name; part of Dasht-i ­Kipchak group.

Kauchin: Uzbek tribal name; part of Dasht-i­ Kipchak group.

Keraga: Latticework sections making up the lower part of the yurt; each section called a kanot, or wing.

Kesamir: Uzbek tribal name; part of Dasht-i ­Kipchak group.

Khalat: Robe.

Khalta: Bag.

Khomduzi: Simple, double-sided straight embroi­dery stitch; also called khomirak.

Kiigich: Small cloth cap worn by Kungrat women beneath a headdress of wrapped scarves.

Kishlaq: Village.

Koilak: Dress.

Kolyb: Wooden stamp for block printing; also called kalib.

Kozik: Stakes driven into the ground to secure the yurt.

Kuklyama: Half cross-stitch.

Kukrak burma koilak: Yoked dress.

Kungrat: Uzbek tribal name; part of Dasht-i­Kipchak group.

Kurta: Long-sleeved, unlined over-robe; also called jelak.

Lakai: Uzbek tribal name; part of Dasht-i- Kipchak group.

Loqai: Alternate spelling of Lakai.

Mahalla: Neighborhood.

Mapramach: Pile-woven or embroidered bag backed with plain or striped fabric and shaped to form a rectangular container.

Marka: Uzbek tribal name; part of Dasht-i­ Kipchak group.

Mehmankhana: Guest room.

Mogul: Happed wool flannel.

Naiman: Uzbek tribal name; part of Dasht-i­ Kipchak group.

Nakh: Base threads.

Nina: Embroidery needle; also igno nino.

Ninaduz: Large embroidery needle.

Nugai burush koilak: Dress with a stand-up collar; sometimes called eka koilak.

Okenli-gilam: Carpet made of strips of alternating embroidered plain- and pattern-woven wool or embroidered with large-scale designs similar to those encountered in ilgich wall hangings.

Oy: Yurt.

Padshoi: Silk ikat.

Paktagul: Cotton flower.

Popuk mashina: Sewing machine for chain stitch.

Popur: Embroidery machine; also called popon.

Pul khalta: Embroidered money pouch.

Pustak: Felt blanket.

Pyopyok: Tassels.

Qataghan: Both an Uzbek tribal name and a larger grouping of Uzbek clans.

Qaum: Affinity group; its ties can be based on kin­-ship, clan links, and economic, religious, or political interests.

Qunghrat: Alternate spelling of Kungrat.

Ruijo: Name for both large suzan; and arched suzani.

Ruyan: Madder root.

Sabov: Twig tool used for teasing wool.

Sanama iroki: Counted-thread cross-stitch; sometimes called sanoma terma iroki.

Segusha: V-shaped or trangular embroidered cloth decorations for the chuk.

Semiz: Uzbek tribal name; part of Dasht-i­ Kipchak group.

Shohi: Plain-woven silk ikat cloth.

Sizgich: Woman skilled at drawing embroidery designs.

Sokirchek: Base on which the mapramach rests.

Suzani: Embroidered hanging.

Tabaklau ilgich: Envelope-shaped square iIgich, constructed with a flap or false flap.

Takyamat: Felt floor covering.

Takyr:  Weft-faced rug with repeating patterns across the entire width.

Tizma: Narrow-woven band.

Tor: Place of honor in the yurt.

Tumar: Triangular cloth amulet; also called dogo.

Tumorcha tikish: Flat-woven rug made from supplementary warp-patterned wool bands.

Turlik: Outer covering of the yurt, consisting of four or five large felt sections.

Tuz khalta: Embroidered salt pouch.

Uima ekali koilak: Everyday woman’s attire, con­sisting of two wide, long-sleeved cloth dresses.

Ulus: Larger tribal grouping or confederation.

Utov: Yurt.

Uuk: Sheaf of curved wooden poles forming the roof of the yurt; also called uvuk.

Uuk kap ilgich: Pentagonal or shield-shaped ilgich.

Uzuk: Semicircular yurt-dome mat, made of felt.

Yo`rma: Chain stitch; alternate spelling of iurma.

Yurt: Round, latticework tent with roof poles and a roof wheel.

Zandanaji: Fabric patterned with large roundels in rows, typically alternating with smaller interstitial designs and surrounded by decorative borders.

Zardevor: Narrow embroidered strip, sometimes long enough to circumscribe a room at ceiling height; also called dorpech.

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UZBEK EMBROIDERY – Kate Fitz Gibbon and Andrew Hale

KYRGYZ GENERAL TERMS – Klavdiya Antipina, Rolando Paiva and Temirbek Musakeev

TRIBAL RUGS – Brian W. Macdonald


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